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Pill on a String can Detect Cancer Without Need for Biopsy

last modified Dec 03, 2015 10:24 AM

July 2015

- Dr. Rebecca Fitzgeralds Group have recently published a paper in Nature Genetics wherein they describe the heterogeneity of the clonal architecture in Barrett’s oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Their findings strengthen support for the molecular Cytosponge technique, which overcomes sampling bias and has the capacity to reflect the entire clonal architecture. A press release based on this work and the Cytosponge technique was recently published in the Telegraph and shown below.-

 

Cambridge University has developed a quick way of testing for gullet cancer using a tiny sponge on a string.

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The pill on a string which dissolves into a sponge 
By Sarah Knapton, Science Editor
4:17PM BST 20 Jul 2015

A ‘pill on a string’ has been developed by the University of Cambridge to detect the early signs of gullet cancer without the need for a biopsy. The pill is swallowed and when the outer case dissolves it reveals a sponge which can then be pulled up the throat lining, collecting cells. Researchers say the tiny sponge is more effective at picking up cancer because it takes a swab of the whole throat and not just a small area that a biopsy would examine. Oesophageal cancer is often preceded by Barrett’s oesophagus, a condition in which cells within the lining of the oesophagus begin to change shape and can grow abnormally.

 

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When the pill dissolves it turns into a sponge.

Between one and five people in every 100 with Barrett's oesophagus go on to develop oesophageal cancer in their life-time, a form of cancer that can be difficult to treat, particularly if not caught early enough. The new test can pick up the earlier condition which means treatment can start sooner. “The trouble with Barrett’s oesophagus is that it looks bland and might span over 10cm,” said Professor Rebecca Fitzgerald, at the Medical Research Council Cancer Research Unit at the University of Cambridge. “There is a great deal of variation amongst cells. Some might carry an important mutation, but many will not. If you’re taking a biopsy, this relies on your hitting the right spot. “Using the sponge appears to remove some of this game of chance.”

The team has taken samples from 73 cancer patients over three years so that they know exactly which mutations indicate that the disease is present. They found patterns of changes where one letter of DNA had been switched for another to provide a ‘fingerprint’ of cancer.
The researchers also discovered that there appeared to be a tipping point, where a patient would go from having lots of individual mutations, but no cancer, to a situation where large pieces of genetic information were being transferred between chromosomes. Co-author Dr Caryn Ross-Innes adds: “We know very little about how you go from pre-cancer to cancer – and this is particularly the case in oesophageal cancer. “Barrett’s oesophagus and the cancer share many mutations, but we are now a step closer to understanding which are the important mutations that tip the condition over into a potentially deadly form of cancer.” The research was funded by the Medical Research Council and Cancer Research UK.

 

Professor Rebecca Fitzgerald discusses the Cytosponge technology (video).

 

Other key articles of this work were published by the Daily Mail NewsweekGizmagCambridge News , and WebMD .